KAAPplus™ (KBR Advanced Ammonia Process plus) is KBR's preferred offering for new plants. KAAPplus combines three major features of KBR's ammonia technology: KRES™, Purifier™, and KAAP™.
The KRES™ (KBR Reforming Exchanger System) replaces the traditional primary reformer with much simpler equipment. The autothermal reformer in the KRES™ system can be operated with plain air instead of oxygen, because the downstream Purifier requires excess nitrogen. Therefore, an air separation unit is not needed for the KRES™ system.
The cryogenic syngas Purifier™ removes the excess nitrogen, all methane, and most of the argon from the syngas. This provides a very clean makeup gas to the synthesis loop. Therefore, the required synloop purge is very small, and the synloop pressure can be reduced. The synloop purge is recycled to the Purifier™, so a separate purge gas recovery unit is not needed.
KAAP™ synthesis catalyst uses ruthenium as the active ingredient. KAAP™ catalyst is 10-20 times more active than traditional magnetite catalyst. KAAP™ catalyst allows lower synthesis loop pressure than is practical with magnetite catalyst. The low synthesis pressure allows use of a single-barrel syngas compressor.
The KAAPplus™ Ammonia Process offers lower capital costs, more competitive energy consumption, increased reliability, and lower maintenance costs. KBR has eliminated the primary reformer and simplified the synthesis gas compressor. These are the two pieces of equipment in an ammonia plant, which traditionally require the most maintenance.
The KRES™, Purifier™ and KAAP™ systems can be used in any combination, depending on the circumstances of a particular project.